Improving Health, Well Being and Stability

Only 35% of participans in a HUD study of Housing First programs for homeless individuals with serious mental illness had Medicaid at the time of enrollment.

Combining housing assistance with social services and healthcare is an effective and cost-saving intervention for homeless and unstably housed individuals and families. Integrating housing with services is an especially effective way to address complex problems for specific populations, including those living with HIV/AIDS, mental illness, chronic substance abuse, and those with histories of violence.

Children can be particularly affected by homelessness; they often have poorer health outcomes, experience developmental delays, and develop educational deficits as their schooling is disrupted by frequent moves. Understanding their needs in the areas of early childhood development and education is critical to improving their well-being, which will help break the intergenerational cycle of homelessness.

Below users will find information and resources on a host of topics related to improving health, well being and household stability:

  • Increasing access to mental health and substance use services
  • Using Medicaid to fund services
  • Integrated care models (combining physical health care and behavioral health care)
  • Medical respite programs as an alternative to long-term hospitalization
  • Child welfare and family reunification
  • Head Start and early childhood development
  • Education strategies for homeless and highly mobile children
     

Additional Resources

Creating a Medicaid Supportive Housing Services Benefit

Schools Are a Critical Part of Solutions to End Youth Homelessness

Ensuring that Homelessness Never Follows Foster Care

Baltimore Takes Steps Forward to End Youth Homelessness

Your Input Is Essential to the Ongoing Success of Opening Doors

101,628 People Are Now in Safe and Stable Homes!

The Chance to Grow Up to Be Whatever You Want: Expanding Access to Services for Children and Families

Promising Starts: School-Based Homelessness Prevention Services

Birth to 5: Watch Me Thrive! - a Tool for Housing & Shelter Providers

Wichita Police Department: Making a Difference for People Experiencing Homelessness

Leveraging the Affordable Care Act to Solve Homelessness: A Message to CoCs and Ten-Year Plan Leaders

How Medicaid Expansion Will Benefit People Experiencing Homelessness

How Do We End Youth Homelessness?

Ending Family Homelessness: A Message to Continuum of Care & Ten-Year Plan Leaders from Barbara Poppe

Ending Chronic Homelessness: A Message to Continuum of Care & Ten-Year Plan Leaders from Barbara Poppe

What We’re Talking About: The Week at USICH - April 1-4

Aligning Assets Towards the Goal: A Blog from VA’s Tom O’Toole on the Homeless Patient Aligned Care Teams (HPACT)

Keeping the Momentum for Ending Youth Homelessness: Reflections from Indianapolis and Beyond

How We’ve Made Progress: Valley of the Sun United Way Shares Their Journey

What We’re Talking About: The Week at USICH - October 15-19

What We’re Talking About: The Week at USICH - October 8-12

Keep an Eye on Portland, Oregon: The New Coordinated Care Organization

The Siemer Institute on Family Stability: Maintaining Housing Stability to Ensure Academic Success

What We’re Talking About: The Week at USICH - July 23-27, 2012

What will it take to end family homelessness?

Checklist: Ten Principles of Care for Families and Children Experiencing Homelessness

Preventing and Addressing Tuberculosis among People Experiencing Homelessness

Tuberculosis is a serious health concern for people experiencing homelessness and those working with...

Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk

J.J. Cutuli, et. al. University of Minnesota October 2012 Analyses examined academic achievement data across...

Sexual Abuse Among Homeless Adolescents: Prevalence, Correlates, and Sequelae

Jody M. Greene November 2002 Over the past two decades, there has been increasing recognition that...

Students on the move: reaching and teaching highly mobile children and youth

Patricia A. Popp, James H. Stronge, Jennifer L. Hindman November 2003 The purpose of this handbook...

Waking Rip van Winkle: Why developments in the last 20 years should teach the mental health system not to use housing as a tool of coercion

Michael Allen July 2003 Many housing programs for people with mental illnesses rely on models that...

The Case Management Relationship and Outcomes for Homeless People with Serious Mental Illness

Matthew J. Chinman, Robert Rosenheck and Julie A. Lam September 2000 The effect of the case...

Client-Case Manager Racial Matching in a Multi-Site Program for Homeless People with Mental Illness

Matthew J. Chinman, Robert A. Rosenheck and Julie A. Lam October 2000 This study evaluated the...

Impact of Work Therapy on Health Status among Homeless Substance Dependent Veterans

T. Michael Kashner, Robert Rosenheck, Anthony Brian Campinell, Alina Surís, Randy Crandall, Nancy...

Health Behaviors and Infant Health Outcomes in Homeless Pregnant Women in The United States

Rickelle Richards, Ray M. Merrill, and Laurie Baksh August 2011 The objective of this study is...

U.S. Housing Insecurity and the Health of Very Young Children

Diana Becker Cutts, Alan F. Meyers, Maureen M. Black, Patrick H. Casey, Mariana Chilton, John...

The Impact of Shelter Use and Housing Placement on Mortality Hazard for Unaccompanied Adults and Adults in Family Households Entering New York City Shelters: 1990-2002

Stephen Metraux, Nicholas Eng, Jay Bainbridge, and Dennis Culhane August 2011 This study examines mortality among...

Medicaid-Financed Services in Supportive Housing for High-Need Homeless Beneficiaries: The Business Case

Michael Nardone, Richard Cho and Kathy Moses The Corporation for Supportive Housing and The Center...

A Family Intervention to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior, Substance Use, and Delinquency Among Newly Homeless Youth

Norweeta G. Milburn, Ph.D., et al. April 2012 We evaluate the efficacy of a short...

Applying the Chronic Care Model to Homeless Veterans: Effect of a Population Approach to Primary Care on Utilization and Clinical Outcomes

Thomas P. O'Toole, Lauren Buckel, Claire Bourgault, Jonathan Blumen, Stephen G. Redihan, Lan Jiang,...

Associations of Housing Status With Substance Abuse Treatment and Service Use Outcomes Among Veterans

Jonathan R. Buchholz, Carol A. Malte, Donald A. Calsyn, John S. Baer, Paul Nichol, Daniel...

Effective Interventions for Homeless Youth

Astrid M. Altena, Sonja N. Brilleslijper-Kater and Judith R.L.M. Wolf June 2010 To date,...

Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities

Judith Samuels, Marybeth Shinn, and John C. Buckner May 2010 This paper provides an update on...

Effect of Full-Service Partnerships on Homelessness, Use and Costs of Mental Health Services, and Quality of Life among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

Sam Tsemberis 2010 Chronically homeless adults with severe mental illness are heavy users of costly inpatient...

The Effects of HIV Stigma on Health, Disclosure of Health Status, and Risk Behavior of Homeless and Unstably Housed Persons Living with HIV

Richard J. Wolitski, Sherri L. Pals, Daniel P. Kidder, Cari Courtenay-Quirk and David R. Holtgrave ...

Associations Between Substance Use, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Treatment Adherence Among Homeless People Living With HIV

Mark S. Friedman, Michael P. Marshal, Ron Stall, Daniel P. Kidder, Kirk D. Henny, Cari...

Factors Associated With Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Homeless or Unstably Housed Adults Living With HIV

Scott W. Royal, Daniel P. Kidder, Satyendra Patrabansha, Richard J. Wolitski, David R. Holtgrave, Angela...

Behavioral Health / Primary Care Integration and the Person-Centered Healthcare Home

Barbara J. Mauer   April 2009   People living with serious mental illnesses are dying 25 year...

Housing Status and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Homeless and Housed Persons with HIV

Daniel P. Kidder, Richard J. Wolitski, Sherri L. Pals, and Michael L. Campsmith December 2008 The...

Factors Associated With Incarceration History Among HIV-Positive Persons

Cari Courtenay-Quirk, Sherri Pals, Daniel Kidder, Kirk Henry and James Emshoff June 2008 Among persons living...

Effective Teaching and At Risk/Highly Mobile Students: What Do Award Winning Teachers Do?

Leslie Grant, James H. Stronge, and Patricia Popp May 2008 This study was designed jointly between...

Rates and Risk Factors for Homelessness after Successful Housing in a Sample of Formerly Homeless Veterans

Maria J. O'Connell,  Wesley Kasprow and Robert A. Rosenheck   March 2008   Research...

Health Status, Health Care Use, Medication Use, and Medication AdherenceAmong Homeless and Housed People Living with HIV/AIDS

Daniel P. Kidder, Richard J. Wolitski, Michael L. Campsmith, and Glenn V. Nakamura December 2007 The...

Physical and Sexual Abuse Among Homeless Adults Living With HIV: Prevalence and Associated Risks

Kirk D. Henny, Daniel P. Kidder, Ron Stall and Richard J. Wolitski November 2007 The purpose...

Moving from Fact to Policy: Housing is HIV Prevention and Health Care

Virginia Shubert and Nancy Bernstine   November 2007   A growing body of empirical evidence shows...

Access to Housing as a Structural Intervention for Homeless and Unstably Housed People Living With HIV: Rationale, Methods, and Implementation of the Housing and Health Study

Daniel P. Kidder, Richard J. Wolitski, Scott Royal, Angela Aidala, Cari Courtenay-Quirk, David R. Holtgrave,...

Housing Need, Housing Assistance, and Connection to HIV Medical Care

Angela A. Aidala, Gunjeong Lee, David M. Abramson, Peter Messeri and Anne Siegler   November 2007 ...

HIV, Homelessness, and Public Health: Critical Issues and a Call for Increased Action

Richard J. Wolitski, Daniel P. Kidder and Kevin A. Fenton   November 2007   Homelessness and...

HIV and Housing Assistance in Four U.S. Cities: Variations in Local Experience

Alison Scott, Jonathan Ellen, Gretchen Clum and Lori Leonard   November 2007   This paper provides...

A Look at Child Welfare From a Homeless Education Perspective

Jan Moore Fall 2007 More and more frequently, local homeless education liaisons are asked to determine...

The Unique Impact of Out-of-Home Placement and the Mediating Effects of Child Maltreatment and Homelessness on Early School Success

John Fantuzzo and Staci Perlman July 2007 Increased national attention has underscored the importance of promoting...

The Effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment for Homeless Populations with Severe Mental Illness

Craig M. Coldwell and William S. Bender   March 2007   The purpose of this study...

Treating Homeless Clients with Severe Mental Illness, Substance Use Disorders

Gary A. Morse, Robert J. Calsyn, W. Dean Klinkenberg, Thomas W. Helminiak, Nancy Wolff, Robert...

Comparison of ACT and Standard Case Management For Delivering Integrated Treatment For Co-Occurring Disorders

Susan M. Essock, Kim T. Mueser, Robert E. Drake, Nancy H. Covell, Gregory J. McHugo,...

Collaborations of Schools and Social Service Agencies

Jan Moore December 2005 In the past two decades, there has been a dramatic rise in...

The Experience of Violence in the Lives of Homeless Women: A Research Report

Jana L. Jasinski, Jennifer K. Wesely, Elizabeth Mustaine, and James D. Wright November 2005 Studies investigating...

Unmet Need for Medical Care among Homeless Adults with Serious Mental Illness

Mayur M. Desai and Robert A. Rosenheck   November 2005   The objective of this study...

An Exploration of Child Maltreatment Among Homeless Families: Implications For Family Policy 

John T. Pardeck May 2005 This research explores the incidence of child maltreatment among homeless families....

Perceived Reasons For Loss of Housing and Continued Homelessness Among Homeless Persons With Mental Illness

Ramin Mojtabai February 2005 The objective of this study was to examine the reasons for the...

Using Medicaid to Support Working Age Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses in the Community

Gary Smith, Cille Kennedy, Sarah Knipper, John O'Brien and Janet O'Keeffe   January 2005 ...

HIV Testing and Receipt of Test Results among Homeless Persons with Serious Mental Illness

Mayur M. Desai and Robert A. Rosenheck   December 2004   The purpose of this study...

Outcomes of Supported Housing among Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness

Alvin S. Mares, Wesley J. Kasprow and Robert A. Rosenheck   December 2004   This study...

Long-Term Effectiveness of the ACCESS Program

Aileen B. Rothbard, So-Young Min, Eri Kuno and Yin-Ling Irene Wong October 2004 This study examined...

One-Year Housing Arrangements among Homeless Adults With Serious Mental Illness in the ACCESS Program

Alvin S. Mares and Robert A. Rosenheck   May 2004   This study examined the various...

Reaching the hard to reach

Jamie Van Leeuwen 2004 This article features three housing programs designed to target the needs of...

Evaluation of the Family Self-Sufficiency Program: Retrospective analysis: 1996-2000

Robert C. Ficke 2004 To break the cycle of reliance of government assistance, HUD’s...

School stability and school performance: a review of the literature

Beth Garriss Hardy 2004 While the topic of student mobility and its effects on school performance...

Increasing school stability for students experiencing homelessness: overcoming challenges to providing transportation to the school of origin

Diana Bowman 2004 Underscoring the importance of school stability for children and youth experiencing homelessness, the...

Outcomes of shelter use among homeless persons with serious mental illness

So-Young Min 2004 The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the...

A Modified Therapeutic Community for Homeless Persons

Darren C. Skinner January 2005 This article, "A Modified Therapeutic Community for Homeless Persons with Co-Occurring...

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in a Sample of Homeless Veterans

Rani A. Desai, Robert A. Rosenheck and Vincent Agnello July 2003 This study measures the prevalence...

Health Status, Service Use, and Costs among Veterans Receiving Outreach Services in Jails or Community

James McGuire, Robert A. Rosenheck, and Wesley J. Kasprow   February 2003   This study compared...

Blueprint for change: Ending chronic homelessness for persons with serious mental illnesses and/or co-occurring substance use disorders

Susan Wells 2003 The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and its Center for...

Research on evidence-based practices: Future directions in an era of recovery

William Anthony 2003 Many mental health systems are trying to promote the adoption of what has...

Students on the move: reaching and teaching highly mobile children and youth

Patricia A. Popp 2003 The purpose of this handbook it to synthesize research on the education...

Waking Rip van Winkle: Why developments in the last 20 years should teach the mental health system not to use housing as a tool of coercion

Michael Allen 2003 Many housing programs for people with mental illnesses rely on models that require...

Sexual Abuse Among Homeless Adolescents: Prevalence, Correlates, and Sequelae

Jody M. Greene, Rebecca Sanchez, Jennifer Manlove, Elizabeth Terry-Humen, Sharon Vandivere, Richard Wertheimer, Stephanie Williams,...

Hispanic Client-Case Manager Matching: Differences in Outcomes and Service Use in a Program for Homeless Persons with Severe Mental Illness

Alexander N. Ortega and Robert A. Rosenheck   May 2002   Mental health professionals have responded...

Quality of Preventive Medical Care for Homeless Veterans with Mental Illness

Benjamin G. Druss Robert A. Rosenheck, Mayur M. Desai and Johnathan B. Perlin   February 2002 ...

Sexual Abuse Among Homeless Adolescents: Prevalence, Correlates, and Sequelae

Jody M. Greene 2002 Over the past two decades, there has been increasing recognition that runaway...

Effectiveness and Cost of Specific Treatment Elements in a Program for Homeless Mentally Ill Veterans

Robert Rosenheck, Linda Frisman and Peggy Gallup November 1995 The study examined relationships between specific treatment...

Client-Case Manager Racial Matching in a Multi-Site Program for Homeless People with Mental Illness

Matthew J. Chinman, Robert A. Rosenheck and Julie A. Lam October 2000 This study evaluated the...

Mental Health Status and Community Adjustment after Treatment in a Residential Treatment Program for Homeless Veterans

Catherine Leda and Robert Rosenheck September 1992 An uncontrolled outcome study was conducted to examine clinical...

Street Outreach for Homeless Persons with Serious Mental Illness Is It Effective?

Julie A. Lam and Robert Rosenheck September 1999 This study examined data on case management clients...

The Case Management Relationship and Outcomes for Homeless People with Serious Mental Illness

Matthew J. Chinman, Robert Rosenheck and Julie A. Lam September 2000 The effect of the case...

Comparing Consumer and Nonconsumer Provided Case Management Services for Homeless Persons with Mental Illness

Matthew J. Chinman, Robert Rosenheck, Julie A. Lam, and Larry Davidson July 2000 This study compared...

Impact of Representative Payees on Substance Use among Homeless Persons Diagnosed with Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

Robert Rosenheck, Julie Lam and Frances Randolph June 1997 Assignment of representative payees, third parties responsible...

Homeless Veterans’ Satisfaction with Residential Treatment

Wesley J. Kasprow, Linda Frisman, Robert A. Rosenheck April 1999 Because little is known about homeless...

Treatment Involvement and Outcomes for Four Subtypes of Homeless Veterans

Keith Humphreys and Robert Rosenheck April 1998 A longitudinal study examined treatment services and outcomes in...

A Model of Homelessness among Male Veterans of the Vietnam War Generation

Robert Rosenheck and Alan Fontana March 1994 This study explored a multifactorial model of vulnerability to...

Social Support and Service Use among Homeless Persons with Serious Mental Illness

Julie A. Lam and Robert Rosenheck March 1999 It has been widely hypothesized that persons with...

Correlates of Improvement in Quality of Life among Persons Who are Homeless and Have Serious Mental Illness

Julie A. Lam and Robert A. Rosenheck January 2000 Longitudinal data from 4,331 homeless mentally ill clients...

An experimental comparison of three types of case management for homeless mentally ill persons.

Gary A. Morse 1997 Three types of case management were compared to determine their relative effectiveness...

Preventing recurrent homelessness among mentally ill men: a critical time intervention after discharge from a shelter

Ezra Susser 1997 This study examined a strategy to prevent homelessness among individuals with severe mental...

Assertive community treatment for patients with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance abuse disorder: A clinical trial

Robert E. Drake 1998 Integrated mental health and substance abuse treatment within an assertive community treatment ...

Serving street dwelling individuals with psychiatric disabilities

David L. Shern 2000 This study tested a psychiatric rehabilitation approach for organizing and delivering services...

Geographic mobility and student achievement in an urban setting

Gary M. Ingersoll 1989 Geographic mobility has long been suspected to have a negative impact on...

Outcomes After Initial Receipt of Social Security Benefits Among Homeless Veterans With Mental Illness

Robert A. Rosenheck, David J. Dausey, Linda Frisman, and Wesley Kasprow December 2000 This study examines...

Cost and Threshold Analysis of Housing as an HIV Prevention Intervention

David R. Holtgrave, Kate Briddell, Eugene Little, Arturo Valdivia Bendixen, Myrna Hooper, Daniel P. Kidder,...

Capitated Assertive Community Treatment Program Savings: System Implications

Daniel Chandler and Gary Spicer September 2002 In a California county of one million people, 4% of...

Characteristics of Individuals With Severe Mental Illness Who Use Emergency Services

Alexander S. Young, Matthew J. Chinman, Julie A. Cradock-O’Leary, Green Sullivan, Dennis Murata,...

Access to Recovery

The Access to Recovery program began in 2007 to provide vouchers for low-income individuals to access...

Basic Center Program

The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (RHYA) serves runaway and homeless youth by funding the...

Child and Adult Care Food Program

The CACFP At-Risk Afterschool Meals program provides snacks and meals to low-income children participating in...

Child Support Enforcement Program

The Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program is a federal, state, tribal and local partnership to...

Community Services Block Grant

The Community Services Block Grant (CSBG) Program provides funds to states, territories and Native American...

Community Mental Health Services Block Grant

The Department of Mental Health at the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA)...

Consolidated Health Centers

Consolidated Health Centers (CHCs) provide health services to underserved populations which include all residents in...

Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans

Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans is a supportive residential rehabilitation and treatment service center for...

Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program

When families become homeless, the experience is traumatizing, especially for children. Research compiled by the...

Family Violence Prevention and Services Act

The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) provides the primary federal funding stream dedicated...

Grants for the Benefit of Homeless Individuals

The Grants for the Benefit of Homeless Individuals Program (GBHI) enables communities to expand and...

Head Start

The Office of Head Start (OHS) provides grants to local public and private non-profit and...

Health Care for the Homeless

The purpose of the Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) program administered by the Health...

Healthcare for Homeless Veterans

The primary mission of the Healthcare for Homeless Veterans Program (HCHV) is to connect Veterans...

Healthy Start Block Grant

The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers the Healthy Start program which is designed...

Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem

VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program is offered annually (as funding permits)...

Homeless Veterans Dental Program

The Homeless Veteran Dental Program is a targeted program for Veterans experiencing homelessness as part...

Housing and Urban Development Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing Program (HUD-VASH)

Participating VA medical centers (VAMCs) were selected based on factors such as the population of...

Justice and Mental Health Collaboration

The Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program funds grants and assistance to states and local...

Maternity Group Home Program

The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (RHYA) serves runaway and homeless youth by funding the...

National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

The National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs are two of the many school meals...

Office of Warrior Care Policy

The Department of Defense’s Office of Warrior Care Policy ensures that members...

Projects for the Assistance in Transition from Homelessness (PATH)

Projects for the Assistance in Transition from Homelessness (PATH) supports programs that provide services for...

Promise Neighborhoods

The Promise Neighborhoods program began in fiscal year 2010 and its vision is to improve the...

Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

The Ryan White HIV/AIDS program began in 1990 and the majority of funds support primary...

Services in Supportive Housing

The Services in Supportive Housing (SSH) program was created to help prevent or reduce chronic...

Social Services Block Grant

The Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) program provides flexible funding to assist states in providing...

Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) administers the Substance Abuse Prevention and...

Summer Food Service Program

The Summer Food Service Program provides free breakfasts and lunches to children during the summer...

Supportive Services for Veterans Families (SSVF) Program

The Supportive Services for Veterans Families Program works with nonprofit organizations to provide social services...

Title V Maternal and Child Health Block Grant

Unique in its design and scope, HRSA’s Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Block...

Transitional Living Program (TLP)

The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act (RHYA) serves runaway and homeless youth by funding the...

Opening Doors Together: Strategies for Integrating Education and Housing Services

  USICH and the Departments of Education (ED) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD) discuss...

Solving for Services: New Medicaid Opportunities to Pay for the “Support” in Permanent Supportive Housing

Solving for Services: New Medicaid Opportunities to Pay for the “Support” in Permanent...

Chronic Survey 2012

Here's something on chronic homelessness.

VA’s HPACT Program Collaborates to Meet Healthcare, Housing Needs

The nation is nearing the half-way point towards our goal of ending homelessness for Veterans...

RWJF test for United Ways

The mission of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is to improve the health and health...

Improving Health Well-Being, and Stability Research

Do Homeless Veterans Have the Same Needs and Outcomes as Non-Veterans Jack Tsai, Alvin...

Improving Health, Well Being and Stability

Only 35% of participans in a HUD study of Housing First programs for homeless individuals with...

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